The precursors of a new art of glass. If we can see that the evolution of glass production in France in the first half of.Century corresponds to the setting up of powerful and modern manufactures, one notes on the other hand that the originality and the strength of the contributions to the history of glassmaking since the second half of the century are inseparable from destinies of individuals. A new story is built around signed objects. As early as 1867, he signs and happily dates sometimes blown glass objects we do not know where or by whom. It decorates polychrome painted and cooked demaux. His technique is no longer derived from the demal traditions on porcelain or painting stained glass, but returns, in the context of a typically historicist research, with a tradition specifically glass, that of thick enamels of Islamic glassware. His works are sometimes mere copies of historical models, such as mosque lamps, that European collectors and museums are beginning to search for. These models are discovered by a wider public during the presentations, exotic or historical, included in the universal exhibitions, these gigantic accumulations, which follow one another after the two shots sent to London in 1851 and Paris in 1855. In connection with this profusion of new information, everything happens as if the technicians of the industrial arts at.
Century were trying to master simultaneously all the know-how of past or distant civilizations. This attempt is made possible by the extraordinary developments of chemistry and modern technology, related to industrialization, but here exploited in a context of creative craftsmanship. The new wealth provoked by industrialization also allows these luxury craft productions to increase their clientele and their international outlets. It is also in this atmosphere that the projects of industrial art museums appear whose primary mission was clearly conceived as a promotion and stimulation of contemporary productions and thus the groups whose association will lead to the creation of the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris, began, at the paris universal exhibition in 1878, a collection of contemporary works."De françois-eugène rousseau and the vase". Half gallé were acquired in 1878. Both of them evoke perfectly the other great meeting of many creators at that time: Japan. François-Eugène Rousseau was neither a manufacturer nor a craftsman but a merchant-publisher, Paris, specialized in ceramics and glass. He was the first, as early as 1867, to introduce this famous Japanese taste in the arts of fire with a service of table in faience whose animal decorations were entrusted to the engraver Félix bracquemond. For his glassworks, which appeared in 1878, we do not know if he should be recognized as an initiator or designer, but they bear his signature and open up new aesthetic ways that gallé himself will recognize as those of a forerunner. We will note the new richness of the colors and the quite original attention brought to the plasticity of the glass worked with hot, two developments made possible thanks to the collaboration with the glassware of the brothers appert to clichy. Moreover, the technique, broadcast from Bohemia to. Century, glasses with several layers superimposed then carved or engraved opens to interpretations quite new when it enriches the discovery of the Chinese glasses. Centuries, related technique, but derived from the tradition of engraved hard stones.
Rousseau followed the technical example while pursuing formal and aesthetic goals, not of the Chinese influence but of the far more free and poetic one of Japan. A japan who was not a glassmaker but a draftsman, ceramist or bronzer. Leveillé, who will succeed him, and two engravers who were his collaborators before working independently, eugène michel and alphonse-georges reyen, form the nucleus of Parisian glassmakers in japanisants.
In 1878, the baccarat crystal factory will also offer beautiful Japanese decorations while respecting its traditional register of transparent crystal engraved. 1878 is also the first major international event where the Gallic demile personality appears. He took over a year ago the direction of the family house of trade and production of faience and glass, based in Nancy, but already enjoying a national reputation. Until 1894, the date of the creation of his own factory in Nancy, his glasses will be blown and often decorated at the meisenthal glassworks, in German territory since the defeat of 1870, as part of a strictly organized collaboration, leaving to gallé and his nancy drawing workshop collaborators the total mastery of the designs. Japonisant, historicizing, orientalizing, gallé sessaiera brilliantly to all the trends of his time, developing his repertoire before achieving an extraordinary synthesis, often technically incredible, but especially associating his destiny of industrial artist to a work of symbolist poet of the subject.
The written comments, intended for the jury, which gallé writes for the exhibition of the Museum of Decorative Arts in 1884 and for the Universal Exhibition of Paris in 1889, give the measure of his qualities of researcher, writer, polemicist. In 1889, the originality and the strength of his performance already allow to impose his genius on the international level: remember that he was at this time engaged as much in his creations of ceramics and furniture as in the glassworks. The objects of art to ". After 1889, the annual artistic salons of Paris go, following a long fight in the name of ".
", To open to the creations of objects of art. These annual meetings, alongside painters, sculptors and engravers, become the center from which the concepts, styles and techniques of Symbolist objects from the Art Nouveau period are disseminated. This is where the poems in half gallé glass find their first jewel before joining the most prestigious public and private collections. In the 1890s the development of the famous glass marquetry technique was born out of a remarkable coordination of design, hot work and cold work.
This sophisticated technique gives Gallé the opportunity to master his floral and symbolist inspiration by developing the chromatic possibilities of glass in a unique way. In parallel to these exceptional productions, Gallé does not neglect the techniques allowing wider diffusions, necessary to the economic equilibrium of a manufacture.
The principle of etching on glasses with several layers of different colors is the best example, taken over internationally, and exploited by the gallé factory, well after the death of the founder, for example for lamps with electric lighting. After 1889, the solitary research of a passionate sculptor of polychrome, henry cros, found the support of the direction of the fine arts. The technique that he develops, molding glass powder in molds destroyed after cooking, and that he calls glass paste, develops thanks to this support of letat. His work is one of the great originalities of glass creation in this period, at once sculptural, figurative and poetic, giving a new life to the ancient myths that it links to the modern spirit of the symbolist movement. His technical research will pave the way for a new branch of glassware when they spread, despite himself, from 1897 by the research dalbert dammouse already well known as ceramist.
During this last decade of. Century, two new names appear which will also participate in the triumphs of art objects during the universal exhibition of 1900: rené lalique, then jeweler but already very interested in the possibilities of the glass, and the very young manufacture daum brothers, settled in nancy, which began a decorative production in 1891. Directly heiress and competitor of the researches demi gallé, the production of daum will very quickly participate in the international diffusion of this original multidisciplinary group, gathered around the principles of alliance of art and industry and officially organized in 1901: School of Nancy. The capacity and speed of adaptation of these young daum teams will remain a force of the manufactory open to stylistic and technical innovations.It will be, for example, thanks to the collaboration of the technician almaric walter, the only world manufacturer to integrate the technique of molding the glass paste in its repertoire from 1909. Despite the departure of young recruits like the brothers schneider, founder dune new glassworks, daum succeeds in time the renewal of inspiration and techniques that allows it to become one of the great French manufactures of the inter-war period. The snail of the vines. "Data-photo-w =" 2000 "data-photo-h =" 3011 "class =" photoshow "type =" image / jpeg ". 28.4 cm signature and inscription under the piece in the brown enamel: emile.
T / e, (cross of Lorraine), g. / deposited signature and inscription engraved under the piece: e, (cross of lorraine), g. Paris / photo: jean tholance for. 1884 is for gallé an important date, it is the year of the. Exhibition of the central union of the decorative arts devoted to earth, glass and stone, inaugurated on August 14th.
In his speech, the president of the central union, Antonin Proust, greeted Gallé as ". The honor of the countries of the east. A common shell of Lorraine. "(Jules henrivaux) bears the double signature of gallé and proven victor to whom returns the composition of the engraved drawing. Ten years younger than Gallé and Nancy like him, the proven painter Victor is the author of a particularly inspired portrait of Gallé and was with his friend in 1901, co-founder of the school of Nancy.It was the mischievous design, not without humor, of snails and little playful children that erase all historicist impression, this sumptuous piece evokes with its delicately glazed foot the seashells of the Mannerist period, a memory reinforced by the limpidity of rock crystal of the glass. Crystal vase model in the shape of a nautilus and decorated with algae. "Where he takes the beautiful shell of the vine of the vineyards, name he had himself given to this piece. "Data-photo-w =" 2000 "data-photo-h =" 1896 "class =" photoshow "type =" image / jpeg ". René lalique, france, 1909 unique copy presented at the salon des artistes français, paris 1909 molded glass, engraved on the wheel, patinated, interior frosted to the hide.
15954 purchase to the artist, 1909. Paris / photo: jean tholance for. 8.8 cm, purchase, 1910, inv.6.5 cm, purchase, 1911, inv. / photo: jean tholance when albert dammouse discusses the technical process of glass paste, rediscovered around 1880 by the painter and sculptor henry cros, the artist was an already famous ceramist. Trained at the school of decorative arts, then in the workshop of marc-louis solon, called milès solon, decorator at the manufacture of sèvres, dammouse master since 1870 the porcelain and the decor in paste on paste, then the sandstone and the cookings of big fire , faience and decorations under cover. Started in 1897, his experiments on the technique of the glass paste constitute the first application to the vocabulary of the object and the first technical transposition of a quhenry cros material had used in bas-relief, with the will to rehabilitate the aesthetic status of the polychrome sculpture By experimenting with this new technique, albert dammouse gradually detached himself from the traditional forms of his porcelains and sandstones to design pieces of preciousness close to the translucent enamels executed at the same time by the fernand thesmar enameller. His material gains finesse and lightness, his motifs are drawn with more precision. His technique involves complex processes, integrating the principle of partitioning, obtained by a harder enamel, playing in transparency and chiaroscuro with the translucent bottom of the walls. Ultimate step in his work of glassmaker, the artist adapts the corolla of the flower to the shape of its glassworks. His ability to pinpoint the exact outline of his motifs allows him to return his models to a few simple joints, punctuated by petals with a great accuracy of polychrome and texture, which suggest a molding on nature.
If the evocation is precise, it does not exclude the invention and the reinterpretation of the natural model. Albert dammouse thus makes the synthesis of several references associating the corolla of a tulip with the petals of liris.Masterpieces of the new floral art, its fragile restitutions, obtained by the stamping of demal powder in a refractory mold, offer one of the most original interpretations of the nature and ephemeral character of its manifestations. Semester, October 1899, p 97-105. Milestones for a history of glass paste. "Review of Ceramics and Glass, No.
Pannier brothers, 1892 triple glass jade base, blown-molded, engraved with acid and wheel h. 30.5 cm acquired from pannier brothers, 1892 inv. / jean tholance lescalier de cristal, famous house of merchants publishers considered by gallé as a ".Permanent exhibition of specialized art. Was, since its creation in 1800, synonymous with quality and refinement. But this brand, affixed both on ceramics, including table services whose crystal staircase was a specialty, that glassware or furniture does not always inform about the authors of these works. Georges and Henry Pannier, who ran the house from 1885, were not content with being only publishers, they also drew some glasses whose execution was ensured by the brothers appert, manufacturers of crystals and demaux. The vase-cornet, widened at its base by a slight projection, is composed of several layers of colored glass, smoked green, red and brown, and the decoration, very subtly worked with the aid and the wheel, plays on these oppositions of colors , a naturalist with an armful of flowers dominated by a peony, traditionally more Chinese than Japanese, and a symbolist with the apparition of the raven, silhouetted against a glittering sunset.
Baccarat, 1878 blown-molded glass, carved, engraved at the wheel h. Cm: 30.5 - l. On the side cm: 10 purchase baccarat crystal glassware November 8, 1878 inv.
Paris / photo: jean tholance. François-eugène rousseau, 1878 blown-molded glass, engraved, enamelled h. 28 cm acquired from the artist, 1878 inv. François-Eugène Rousseau had taken in 1856 following his father the direction of an old earthenware house, founded in 1853 in Paris, rue coquillière.From a merchant, he becomes a model editor for ceramics, starting with a famous Japanese service ordered from bracquemond. A few years later, inspired by Japanese art, he drew glass pieces made in the factory of the brothers appert in Clichy. Noticed by luynes at the London Exhibition, in 1871, as ".
Artist and researcher enlightened, having executed a large number of pieces or sets that are happy innovations. Rousseau triumphed at the 1878 exhibition with Japanese-style glassware, some of the most beautiful pieces in this field. The delicate engraving of the bamboo leaves is enhanced by the original shape of the vase, the quadrangular stylization of a bamboo segment, and the brilliance of the blue enamelled decor. "Data-photo-w =" 2000 "data-photo-h =" 2473 "class =" photoshow "type =" image / jpeg ".
Alphonse-georges reyen, 1894 blown glass, lined, powder interals, engraved at the wheel h. 20cm acquired from the artist, 1894 inv.
/ jean tholance on the smooth and rounded shape of the vase filled with a misty atmosphere that crosses like a ray of light two flows of an intense green, the delicacy of the decor engraved depis and grasses, animated by insects, by his spirit and the attention paid to nature in its most humble aspects, is close to Japanese inspiration. This is one of the most poetic creations of Reyen who became known in 1884 by applying the processes of engravers on glass plates and vases with two or more layers, allowing him to obtain, thanks to his skill, very diverse compositions.It is undoubtedly in contact with Eugène Rousseau, an unrepentant japonist whose collaborator he was some time ago, that reyen concretized his sensibility in sets of refined naturalism, inspired by japan. "Data-photo-w =" 2000 "data-photo-h =" 2000 "class =" photoshow "type =" image / jpeg ". / photo: jean tholance for. It was in the 1870s that Gallé became familiar with the Japanese print.
Later in 1885, he became acquainted with the Japanese takacyma, a student of botany at the University of Nancy, but as early as 1882, among the most famous of them. What gallé was giving himself was already the one of "no japanisation". The most-watched japanese image directory remained, since its use by bracquemond for the famous service ordered by eugène rousseau, the manga dhokusai (fifteen collections of drawings). And the enormous carp figured here is none other than the one bearing the goddess Kwannon, as found on a double page of the book.
From the manga, motif also used, but in reverse, by eugène rousseau on a vase preserved in baltimore. The vase "carp" was acquired by the Museum of Decorative Arts at the Universal Exhibition of 1878, the very year it was created. Gallé had just perfected the "moonlight" glass, which owes its name to the sapphire tone obtained by cobalt oxide.The twisted ribs of the glass binding to the wavy movement of the carp gives the illusion of moving water and the bright blue demal spots are like so many splatters. Through the water one can feel the shiny scales of the fish, while on the reverse side of the vase the aquatic flora develops on the surface and in the depths. Naturalism and stylization are also striking in this first great chef-duvre realized a year after quemile gallé took the direction of the family business. "Data-photo-w =" 1328 "data-photo-h =" 2000 "class =" photoshow "type =" image / jpeg ". Emile gallé, 1903 multi-layered blown glass, inter-clinging intermediate powders, hot applications, patina, engraved and hammered to the wheel h. 28.5 cm signature engraved on the belly. Our roots are in the woods, at the edge of springs, on mosses.
Such was the profession of faith that Gallé had engraved on the door of one of his workshops, by his friend and fellow eugene vallin. It is to these roots of nature that this vase draws its poetry and beauty.Applications of hot glass on metal straws to make the eyes alive, and hot modeling of opaque glass for the embossed body of the insect. His position both off-center and ". On the face of the vase, remembers the Japanese lesson, remarkably assimilated this time. The theme of the dragonfly is permanent in the work of gallé, how many can be counted, white or black butterflies, moths, ephemera, dragonflies, enamelled, melted in the mass, or engraved, messengers of a symbolism dear to the glassmaker. "Data-photo-w =" 2000 "data-photo-h =" 2881 "class =" photoshow "type =" image / jpeg ". François-eugène rousseau, circa 1884 jade glass, blown, doubled and engraved at the wheel h. In 1885, shortly after its manufacture, this vase was acquired by the Museum of Decorative Arts, the same year that Eugène Rousseau associated himself with the enlightened man that he had to initiate to his art. The merchant-publisher Eugène Rousseau, who can be considered as one of the most important revelators of Japonisme in Paris, mixes here with great freedom the Japanese and Chinese sources. The very material of green jade borrows its appearance from Chinese hard stones or imitates the ".
Century by the Chinese to make small flasks-snuffboxes. But it is in Japan, especially in some potteries, that this vase has the irregularity of its mouth, resulting from hot work. It is also the most traditional Japanese liconography come, on the one hand the vision of Mount fuji surrounded by a frieze of small round clouds and the other, the appearance of the rising sun beyond a pine wood summarily silhouetted, as many images retained a drawing on double page of the book. The contrast made by the work at the wheel, an agate background found beyond the flaming orange layer, testifies to this. Pleasure of the eyes by the splendor of the color.
Which was sought above all by Eugene Rousseau, according to Jules Henriques. Emile Gallé, Nancy, 1888/1889 presented at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1889 blown glass, doubled, interspersed inclusions, engraved on the wheel and gilded h. 11975 bequest leon clery, 1905. "" data-photo-w = "2000" data-photo-h = "2556" class = "photoshow" type = "image / jpeg". / photo: jean tholance The reference to antiquity, without precise iconographic theme, is here associated with the idealized pastoral life as it was sung by the virgile poet, an evocation that places the artist between the tradition of symbolism and the modernity of the Nabis.
The subtle luminosity of the polychromy and the originality of the material comes from the particular molding technique developed by the sculptor in 1883 and he calls it ". "Is one of the rare incursions in this typology of decorative art of the sculptor whose majority of works are bas-reliefs like the monumental". Visible in the gallery of oculi (n5). "Data-photo-w =" 2000 "data-photo-h =" 2784 "class =" photoshow "type =" image / jpeg ".
François Décorchemont, 1912 glass paste molded lost wax h. 17.5 cm acquired from the artist 1912 inv.Photo: jean tholance at the end of. Century, for many artists in search of a radically new artistic expression, nature was an inexhaustible source of inspiration.
From her childhood spent with her grandparents in normandie in the rouloir valley, françois décorchemont developed a sensitive knowledge of nature. It is to the fauna and flora of his native region that he will borrow the richness of his beetle patterns, beetles with long antennae, caphots ..., registering in 1903, when he presents at the salon of French artists his first tests of pasta fine, in the naturalistic vein of the new art. The theme of the beetle was exploited several times in his work with a care of accuracy that reinforces from 1910 the adaptation to his glass casts of the technique of lost wax casting. From 1912, its walls become thicker, its colors more vivid and luminous, its patterns acquire volume and density.
This copy of the vase ". Is one of the first models of the new thick pasta by françois décorchemont.By the frankness of its colors opposing dark and clear masses, its thick material and still not very translucent, it occupies a pivotal position in the work of the artist. The item "beautiful glass cut opalsecent art nouveau lalic verlys etling" is on sale since Friday, April 27, 2018.
It is in the category "art, antiques \ furniture, decoration of the twentieth \ art deco \ tables". The seller is "djam2021" and is located in / in finistere. This item can be shipped to the following country: europe.